Showing posts with label Cytokines. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Cytokines. Show all posts

How to Prevent Coronavirus COVID 19 Infection and Its Available Treatment

 How to Prevent Coronavirus COVID 19 Infection?

What Is the Treatment available for CoronaVirus Infection?

Coronavirus Tips to stay away from Infection

Coronavirus infection has become a pandemic. The need for the hour is to stop the spread of Infection. 

How did the Coronavirus Infection Start?

                                   This is a new strain SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus Covid 19. It started in Wuhan City China. It started probably in the seafood market. Exact origins not known. It is a zoonotic disease that underwent a mutation. Now it has started human to human transmission from November 2019. Available statistics show more than 82000 people were infected and deaths reported are around 3200 in China.
                                   The total lockdown was done in Wuhan City Hubei Province China. This prevented the spread of the disease to other parts of China like Beijing and Shanghai.
                               From China, it initially spread to South Korea and Singapore. One of the Cruise liner Diamond Princess Cruise reported a large cluster of infection. Over 800 people tested positive and 10 people died. Diamond Princess is located now in Yokohama south of Tokyo Japan.
                               Most of the governments showed initial inertia and did not cancel flights from China immediately. The infection started spreading in Iran and Europe. Europe had direct flights from Wuhan. Northern Italy has a lot of immigrant Chinese population. During Chinese, new year lot of Chinese returned from Wuhan bringing infection along with.
                                  Till Today Total Cases reported are around 5,98,000. Approximately 27,300 deaths have been reported. Italy has the largest number of deaths.Italy(9134)Spain(5138) China(3298)Iran(2378)France(1995)United States(1704)United Kingdom (759) is the record available on 28th March 2020.                                   These figures are approximate and keep changing by the hour.
                                    Prince Charles and Wife Of the Canadian Prime Minister also acquired infection. British Prime Minister Boris Johnson has also been infected by the virus.
                                    Italy has one of the best Health Infrastructure in the world. Still, it has been unable to withstand the onslaught of the disease. Intensive care units are flooded with patients. Health care professionals are overworked and overwhelmed by the ferocity of infection. Many health care workers including Prominent Physicians and Cardiologists have died.
                                  Now the United States is becoming the epicenter of the disease. New York, Washington, and California are the areas badly hit by the infection. Other states like Louisiana and New Jersey are also reporting more cases. President Donald Trump has declared a national state of emergency. Mr. Mike Pence is the commander of the US coronavirus task force.
                                   Wuhan City is now returning to the normal state. The number of new cases has dropped to a single digit.
                             The current aim of the global response is to flatten the transmission curve so that the intensity of the spread is slowedDue to the high number of patients health care systems have been overwhelmed.

How to Prevent Corona Virus Infection?

                                  Social Isolation is one of the best methods to prevent the spread of disease. China very effectively used this strategy to prevent the spread. However, western Democracies seem to be caught unaware. They have not been able to implement these lockdowns effectively. Now the results are everywhere to be seen. Lockdown of all flights trains and buses is needed.
                                  Individuals can prevent the disease by handwashing with soap for at least 20 seconds. Alcohol-based sanitizers can be used. Alcohol content needs to be at least 60%. People should avoid going out of houses. Handshaking and hugging should be avoided.
                                   Face masks should be used. Special N95 face masks are needed for health care professionals. Health care workers need PPE(Personal Protective Equipments). There seems to be a shortage of PPEs in many countries exposing doctors and nurses to infection. Shortage of Ventilators and ICCU Beds is another grave issue. Infected doctors can spread the disease to other patients.

What are the Symptoms of Corona Virus Infection?

  1. Fever
  2. Cough Dry Mostly
  3. Rhinitis/Running of Nose
  4. Throat Pain
  5. Body Pain & Myalgia
  6. Breathlessness & Difficulty in breathing
  7. Dizziness & Hypoxia
The Symptoms can vary from person to person.

                  80% of people who suffer from Coronavirus infection recover on their own. About 10% to 15% need hospitalization. 5% need ICU care and mortality is high in such cases.
Patients with mild breathlessness can use inhalers and bronchodilators. Many patients do well on Nasal Oxygen. Patients who have severe breathing difficulties need to be admitted to Intensive care units. They may need endotracheal intubation and assisted ventilation.                   Use of Non-Invasive Ventilation can be tried in home-based settings. In Intensive Care Units, it can produce more aerosols and increase the risk of transmissions.
                 Patients with Pre Existing illnesses like Diabetes or Immunodeficiencies are more prone to infections. Nutritional deficiencies and smoking may be other risk factors.

Lungs Get Affected In Corona Virus Infections


What Is Cytokine Storm Syndrome (CSS)

                            Some of the patients suffering from Coronavirus infection can develop Cytokine storm Syndrome. Cytokines are inflammatory immunological proteins that are released in the body after viral infection. Sometimes there is a hyper-response and they can attack internal organs like lungs and kidneys. This can lead to breathing difficulties.
                            Previously it was thought that it is uncommon. It is a hyper response by the body's immune system leading to complications like a respiratory failure.
                            C Reactive proteins and Ferritin Levels are Elevated in such cases.

Treatment Of Coronavirus Infection

                     No known Established therapeutics or confirmed effective pharmaceutical agent is known. However many drugs have been used with various degrees of effectivity. Antimalarials like Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine have been effective in some studies.
                    Protease inhibitors like lopinavir/ritonavir have been tried successfully in some cases. Tamiflu or Oseltamivir is also useful in some cases. Oseltamivir is used to treat influenza and Swine Flu Viral Infections. Supportive treatment is also needed like Oxygenation and Respiratory Physiotherapy.
                        By united efforts, we should be able to overcome this pandemic.

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